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Tom (FN2) Cruise (LN2), Movie (Des2)

Actor (Title2)
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Tom Cruise is an American actor and filmmaker. He has been nominated for three Academy Awards and has won three Golden Globe Awards. He started his career at age 19 in the 1981 film Endless Love.

Born: July 3, 1962, Syracuse, NY

Height: 5ft 7in

Spouse: Katie Holmes m. 2006–2012, Nicole Kidman m. 1990–2001, Mimi Rogers m. 1987–1990

Children: Suri Cruise, Isabella Jane Cruise, Connor Cruise

Jamie (FN3) Foxx (LN3), TV & Movie (Des3)

Actor (Title3)
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Eric Marlon Bishop, known professionally as Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, singer, comedian, writer, and producer.

Born: December 13, 1967, Terrell, TX
Full name: Eric Marlon Bishop
Height: 5ft 9in 
Children: Corinne Bishop, Annalise Bishop
Siblings: Deidra Dixon, Diondra Dixon

Michelle (FN4) Pfeiffer (LN4), Movie (Des4)

Actress (Title4)
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Michelle Marie Pfeiffer is an American actress and singer. She made her film debut in 1980 in The Hollywood Knights, but first garnered mainstream attention with her breakout performance in Scarface.

Born: April 29, 1958, Santa Ana, CA
Height: 5ft 7in
Spouse: David E. Kelley m. 1993
Siblings: Dedee Pfeiffer, Lori Pfeiffer, Rick Pfeiffer
Children: Claudia Rose Pfeiffer, John Henry Kelley

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Laurence (FN6) Fishburne (LN6), TV & Movie (Des6)

Actor (Title6)
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Laurence John Fishburne III is an American actor, playwright, director, and producer. He is best known for his roles as Morpheus in the Matrix science fiction film trilogy, Mr. Clean in Apocalypse Now

Born: July 30, 1961, Augusta, GA
Height: 6ft 0in
Spouse: Gina Torres m. 2002
Children: Montana Fishburne, Langston Fishburne, Delilah Fishburne

Gina (FN7) Torres (LN7), TV & Movie (Des7)

Actress (Title7)
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Gina Torres is an American television and movie actress. She has appeared in many television series, including Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, Xena: Warrior Princess, the short-lived Cleopatra 2525, ...

Born: April 25, 1969, Manhattan, New York City, NY
Height: 5ft 10in
Nationality: American
Spouse: Laurence Fishburne m. 2002
Children: Delilah Fishburne

John (FN8) Leguizamo (LN8), Movie (Des8)

Actor (Title8)
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John Alberto Leguizamo is a Colombian-American actor, voice actor, producer, comedian, playwright and screenwriter.

Born: July 22, 1964, Bogotá, Colombia
Height: 5ft 8in
Spouse: Justine Maurer m. 2003, Yelba Osorio m. 1994–1996
Children: Lucas Leguizamo, Allegra Leguizamo, Ryder Leguizamo
Nationality: Colombian, American

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Kurt (FN5) Russell (LN5), Movie (Des5)

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Kurt Vogel Russell is an American actor. His first roles were as a child in television series, including a lead role in the Western series The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters.

Born: March 17, 1951, Springfield, MA

Partner: Goldie Hawn 1983–...

Spouse: Season Hubley m. 1979–1983

Children: Wyatt Russell, Boston Russell

Parents: Louise Julia Russell, Bing Russell

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Nicholas (FN9) Cage (LN9), Movie (Des9)

Actor (Title9)
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Nicolas Kim Coppola, known professionally as Nicolas Cage, is an American actor and producer. He has performed in leading roles in a variety of films, ranging from romantic comedies and dramas to science fiction and action films.

Born: January 7, 1964, Long Beach, CA
Spouse: Alice Kim m. 2004, Lisa Marie Presley m. 2002–2004, Patricia Arquette m. 1995–2001
Children: Weston Coppola Cage, Kal-El Coppola Cage
Parents: Joy Vogelsang, August Coppola

Ludwig (FN11) Beethoven (LN11), Classical (Des11)

Composer (Title11)
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Ludwig van Beethoven

17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827

He was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music, choral works including the celebrated Missa solemnis, and songs.

Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and by Christian Gottlob Neefe. During his first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 and began studying with Haydn, quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. In about 1800 his hearing began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf. He gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works come from this period.

Samuel (FN12) Clemens (LN12), Fiction (Des12)

Author (Title12)
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Samuel Langhorne Clemens

November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910

Better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1876 and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1885, the latter often called the Great American Novel.

Twain grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, which provided the setting for Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. After an apprenticeship with a printer, he worked as a typesetter and contributed articles to the newspaper of his older brother, Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his singular lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. In 1865, his humorous story, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, was published, based on a story he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, California, where he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention, and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty.

Though Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he invested in ventures that lost a great deal of money, notably the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter, which failed because of its complexity and imprecision. In the wake of these financial setbacks, he filed for protection from his creditors via bankruptcy, and with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers eventually overcame his financial troubles. Twain chose to pay all his prebankruptcy creditors in full, though he had no legal responsibility to do so.

Twain was born shortly after a visit by Halleys Comet, and he predicted that he would go out with it, too. He died the day after the comet returned. He was lauded as the greatest American humorist of his age, and William Faulkner called Twain the father of American literature.

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Eva (FN10) Mendes (LN10), Movie (Des10)

Actress (Title10)
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Eva Mendes is an American actress, model, singer and designer. She began acting in the late 1990s, and after a series of roles in B movies such as Children of the Corn V: Fields of Terror and Urban ...

Born: March 5, 1974, Miami, FL
Nationality: American
Height: 5ft 6in
Partner: Ryan Gosling 2011–...
Children: Esmeralda Amada Gosling

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Edgar (FN13) Poe (LN13), Poet (Des13)

Author (Title13)
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Edgar Allan Poe 

January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849

He was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story, and is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction.He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career.

Born in Boston, Poe was the second child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan, of Richmond, Virginia. Although they never formally adopted him, Poe was with them well into young adulthood. Tension developed later as John Allan and Edgar repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, and the cost of secondary education for the young man. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It was at this time his publishing career began, albeit humbly, with an anonymous collection of poems, Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1827, credited only to a Bostonian. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement. Later failing as an officers cadet at West Point and declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, Poe parted ways with John Allan.

Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In Baltimore in 1835, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13 year old cousin. In January 1845 Poe published his poem, The Raven, to instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own journal, The Penn later renamed The Stylus, though he died before it could be produced. On October 7, 1849, at age 40, Poe died in Baltimore; the cause of his death is unknown and has been variously attributed to alcohol, brain congestion, cholera, drugs, heart disease, rabies, suicide, tuberculosis, and other agents.

Poe and his works influenced literature in the United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields, such as cosmology and cryptography. Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre.

George (FN14) Washington (LN14), American (Des14)

Politician (Title14)
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George Washington

February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799

He was the first President of the United States from 1789–1797, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land.

Washington was unanimously elected President by the electors in both the 1788–1789 and 1792 elections. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types. Washington established many forms in government still used today, such as the cabinet system and inaugural address. His retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term.Washington has been widely hailed as the father of his country – even during his lifetime.

Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia; his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves, that he in turn inherited. Washington owned hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime, but his views on slavery evolved. Later in his life he wanted to free them and abolish slavery, though he and his wife Martha emancipated none of their human property during their lifetimes. When Martha Washington died on May 22, 1802, all of the slaves from her first husbands estate, the dower slaves as well as the slaves she held in trust, went to her first husbands heirs. After his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commander in chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776, but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.

Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as Commander in chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.

Dissatisfied with the Continental Congress, in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that devised a new federal government for the United States. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to pay off all state and national debt, to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank, despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson.

Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs. Washingtons Farewell Address was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home in Mount Vernon, and domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.

Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power. He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism. At his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Henry Lee.

Henry (FN16) Ford (LN16), American (Des16)

Industrialist (Title16)
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Henry Ford

July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947

He was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would profoundly impact the landscape of the twentieth century. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with Fordism: mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation and arranged for his family to control the company permanently.

Physicist (Title15)
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Albert (FN15) Einstein (LN15), Scientist (Des15)

Physicist (Title15)
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Albert Einstein 

14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955

He was a German born theoretical physicist. Einsteins work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics alongside quantum mechanics. Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 which has been dubbed the worlds most famous equation. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his services to theoretical physics, in particular his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large scale structure of the universe.

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of extremely powerful bombs of a new type and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non scientific works. On 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einsteins papers, comprising more than 30,000 unique documents. Einsteins intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein synonymous with genius.

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Howard (FN17) Hughes (LN17), American (Des17)

Inventor (Title17)
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Howard Robard Hughes, Jr.

December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976

He was an American business tycoon, investor, aviator, aerospace engineer, inventor, filmmaker and philanthropist. During his lifetime, he was one of the wealthiest people in the world. As a maverick film tycoon, Hughes gained prominence in Hollywood from the late 1920s, making big-budget and often controversial films like The Racket in 1928, Hells Angels in 1930, Scarface in 1932, and The Outlaw in 1943.

Subsequently, he formed the Hughes Aircraft Company and hired numerous engineers and designers. He spent the rest of the 1930s setting multiple world air speed records, built the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 Hercules better known to history as the Spruce Goose aircraft, and acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines, which later merged with American Airlines. He was included in the Flying magazine list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation, ranking at No. 25. Hughes is also remembered for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle in later life, caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic pain. His legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Amelia (FN18) Earhart (LN18), American (Des18)

Aviator (Title18)
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Amelia Mary Earhart

July 24, 1897 – disappeared July 2, 1937

She was an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She received the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross for this record. She set many other records, wrote best selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety Nines, an organization for female pilots. Earhart joined the faculty of the Purdue University aviation department in 1935 as a visiting faculty member to counsel women on careers and help inspire others with her love for aviation. She was also a member of the National Womans Party, and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment.

During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 in a Purdue funded Lockheed Model 10 Electra, Earhart disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life, career and disappearance continues to this day.

Martin (FN19) King (LN19), American (Des19)

Activist (Title19)
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Martin Luther King Jr.

January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968

He was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference  in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia the Albany Movement, and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous I Have a Dream speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.

On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the following year he and SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and speak against the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam".

In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor Peoples Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting.

King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also renamed for him. The Martin Luther King Memorial statue on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. was dedicated in 2011.

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Mohandas (FN20) Gandhi (LN20), Indian (Des20)

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

October 1869 – 30 January 1948

Also known as Bapu, he was the preeminent leader of Indian independence movement in British ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahatma applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa, is now used worldwide. He is also called Bapu in India.

Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, western India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian communitys struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding womens rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, but above all for achieving Swaraj or self rule.

Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. Gandhi attempted to practise nonviolence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in a self sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as the means to both self purification and social protest.

Gandhis vision of a free India based on religious pluralism, however, was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to promote religious harmony. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 at age 78, also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating. Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest at point-blank range.

Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide as the International Day of Nonviolence.

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